November 30, 2018
1. Biogas slurry is a kind of high-quality organic fertilizer. The biogas slurry is an organic matter such as human and animal waste and straw, and the residual liquid after bio-fermentation in the biogas tank produces biogas. The biogas slurry contains a variety of water-soluble nutrients and is a quick-acting high-quality organic fertilizer.
Its nutritional components are: total nitrogen 0.03% - 0.08% , total phosphorus 0.02% - 0.06% , total potassium 0.05% - 1.40% . Contains various amino acids, gibberellins, auxins, sugars, nucleic acids, antibiotics and B vitamins (including vitamin B12 , niacin (vitamin B1 ) and riboflavin (vitamin B2 )), hydrolase and so on. It also contains mineral elements such as calcium, sodium, iron and iodine.
An 8 cubic meter biogas tank provides biogas slurry fertilizer for one year, equivalent to 40 kilograms of ammonium sulfate , 32 kilograms of superphosphate , and 12 kilograms of potassium chloride .
Second, the main characteristics of biogas slurry 1 , biogas slurry is a liquid quick-acting organic fertilizer. In the past, organic fertilizers were mainly compost, manure and pig house straw, forage and pig manure compost. These organic fertilizers are all solid organic fertilizers, which are used after being fermented by aerobic fermentation. Most of its nutrients are mainly complex organic matter, so it is a slow-acting organic fertilizer. Biogas slurry is a water-soluble, quick-acting, high-quality organic fertilizer, but the concentration is low, and the amount is large each time.
ã€€ã€€ 2 , biogas slurry without pests and diseases. If human and animal excrement contain virus pathogens and eggs, after anaerobic fermentation, they can generally be killed to avoid the spread of pests and diseases.
ã€€ã€€ 3. The use of biogas slurry storage and transportation is different. Solid organic fertilizer is convenient in storage, transportation and use. As a liquid fertilizer, biogas slurry is completely different in storage, transportation and use. Generally speaking, the household biogas pool has a small amount of biogas slurry, and the monthly biogas slurry volume is 2 to 3 tons, which can meet the needs of 2 mu of crops for organic fertilizer in one year . Therefore, the biogas slurry of the household biogas tank is difficult to use, and it can be solved by artificial shoulder picking, and the requirements for labor quality are also strict. However, the amount of biogas slurry in large and medium-sized biogas projects is very large, which not only requires a large-scale crop area, but also has high requirements in terms of storage, transportation, and use techniques and means.
ã€€ã€€ 4. Fresh biogas slurry contains other harmful substances. Fresh biogas slurry contains some other harmful substances in addition to the nutrients needed for crops. First, it contains residual gases, such as biogas, hydrogen sulfide and other gaseous substances; second, it contains solid residues with insufficient fermentation; third, it is mainly used for commercial and feed, with high salt content. The acidity is heavier. However, in large and medium-sized biogas projects, the biogas liquid post-treatment system is generally designed, and after aerobic purification and precipitation, these problems can be basically solved.
Third, the main application technology of biogas slurry fertilizer in citrus production (1) Biogas slurry fertilizer storage and transportation technology, 1 , biogas slurry storage and transportation technology. The biogas slurry mentioned here mainly refers to the discharge of biogas slurry in large and medium-sized biogas digesters. In the construction process of large and medium-sized biogas digesters, the biogas slurry aerobic purification tank is generally designed. After the biogas slurry is purified by aerobic purification, it can be directly transported to the field for agricultural production. However, the scale of biogas slurry discharge in large and medium-sized biogas digesters is large, and large-scale citrus fields require large scales of biogas slurry. Therefore, whether in theory or in terms of actual needs, a benign supply-demand relationship can naturally be formed between the two. In order to solve this supply and demand relationship, we must first do a good job in the biogas storage and transportation technology.
The biogas slurry fertilizer storage and transportation technology process is: biogas slurry - transport - storage - use.
Biogas slurry transportation: At present, the special biogas slurry transport vehicle is mainly used to solve the biogas liquid transportation. The country has gradually equipped a special biogas liquid truck with a capacity of 1 to 5 m3 since the construction project of the rural biogas follow-up service network issued in 2008 . Basically solved the contradiction of the difficulty in large-scale transportation of biogas slurry.
Biogas storage: Biogas storage is mainly to resolve the contradiction between daily discharge of biogas slurry and seasonal and staged use of citrus. Where there are irrigation conditions, the biogas slurry is combined with storage for precipitation filtration treatment (more on this later) to facilitate large-scale irrigation of biogas slurry. The storage facility is to plan the construction of a brick-mixed biogas storage tank according to the field conditions and the size of the area. The design of the storage pool size is generally planned according to 10 m3 / mu. The goal of integrating biogas slurry irrigation, water collection and drought resistance, and irrigation and fertilization in the biogas storage tank.
Biogas slurry treatment: According to the characteristics of biogas slurry, when mechanized irrigation of biogas slurry fertilizer, it is required to filter the residue of biogas slurry for irrigation. A simple filter device is a self-made filter bucket. That is, the shape is like a barrel, and the cloth is like a cage. The design method is: first-stage filter barrel: diameter 70cm , screen size 3mm , opening upward; secondary filtration: diameter 50cm , screen size 1mm , opening upward; three-stage filtration: diameter 30cm , screen mesh 100 mesh, opening upward. Finally, the three-stage filter is packaged to form a whole body, and the upper and lower ends of the outermost filter barrel are extended to be brackets. Generally, the biogas liquid vehicle is required to be self-assembled, and the biogas slurry is filtered while pumping the biogas slurry. After use, the filter bucket is cleaned and stored for future use, prolonging the service life and ensuring the use effect.
The use of biogas slurry: large-scale citrus combined with large-scale biogas liquid phase, the use of the problem must be solved in use, relying on shoulders and hand pouring difficult. First, the efficiency is too low, and second, the labor must be fully protected. Therefore, mechanized or semi-mechanized irrigation techniques are used.
Semi-mechanized irrigation technology: semi-mechanized irrigation technology is limited in economic conditions. Install a total gate valve in the biogas storage tank, install the pv main pipeline between the biogas tank and the main road in the field, install a branch gate valve between each two rows of citrus on the main pipeline, and then equip a spare hose with a length of field length. Prevail. When using, install the hose on the branch gate valve and the other end by hand.
Mechanized irrigation technology: Conditionally equipped with mechanized irrigation technology. A total gate valve and a high pressure pump are installed in the biogas liquid storage tank, and a pv main pipe is laid between the biogas liquid pool and the main road in the field, and a micro irrigation hose is laid between the main pipe and the citrus. The biogas slurry is automatically ejected from the hose in two rows. Conditional installation of high pressure sprinkler is better.
2. The use of biogas slurry fertilizer in stages. According to the law of citrus fertilizer, citrus fertilizers are generally used in three phases in three phases.
The first phase of spring fertilizer: spring fertilizer is the buds into the flower bud stage after dormancy, this period of biogas slurry fertilizer used twice. Once it is flowering, it is in the early stage of the germination, generally in late February; the second time is around March 10th. This time, it can be combined with appropriate compound fertilizer, and the required compound fertilizer is calculated and put into the biogas slurry to fully stir it. Dissolve and then apply to the citrus tree together by irrigating the biogas slurry.
The second phase of summer fertilizer: this period is the largest period of citrus fertilizer, but also a critical period. This period of biogas slurry fertilizer was used three times on June 5, 20, and July 5. Used in conjunction with compound fertilizer on June 20. If a serious drought occurs during a certain period of time in this period, it is also possible to combine the drought resistance and apply a biogas slurry fertilizer, such as mid-to-late May or mid-July. Drought occurs at other times, only watering, no bio-liquid fertilizer. However, the biogas slurry foliar fertilizer can be properly supplemented.
The third phase of winter fertilizer: this period belongs to citrus and fertilizer, and biogas slurry fertilizer is generally used twice. Early-maturing varieties are generally used once in combination with compound fertilizer after picking, once every 15 days, twice in succession. In the winter, if severe drought occurs, it can be properly applied once; the medium-late mature variety is used once before picking, and once every 15 days after picking, twice in succession.
3. Quantitative use technology of biogas slurry. The quantitative use of biogas slurry fertilizer is mainly determined by the factors and growth conditions of citrus fertilizer. Generally, it is the highest in summer, followed by winter and spring.
Spring: Generally, every citrus tree in spring needs 100kg of biogas slurry. If it grows poorly, it can be increased to 130kg if it is dry. In summer, 130kg of biogas slurry should be used for each citrus tree in summer. If it grows poorly, Drought can be appropriately increased to 160kg; winter: 120kg of biogas slurry should be used for each citrus tree in summer. If the growth is poor, there is a drought phenomenon that can be appropriately increased to 150kg; 4. Biogas slurry field use technology. The biogas slurry field use technology is mainly due to the inconsistent irrigation speed during the use of biogas slurry due to semi-mechanization and mechanization, and pay attention to appropriate methods in use.
When semi-mechanized biogas slurry is used for irrigation, it is usually watered by hand and hose. The speed of single tree is fast and the flow is large, which is easy to produce surface runoff. Therefore, before use, the furrow should be opened according to the canopy line, and then irrigation should be carried out.
When mechanized biogas slurry is used for irrigation, the position of the micro-irrigation hose is mainly placed, and generally a line of citrus trunks can be used. However, the viscous soil should be combined with weeding and loosening soil, and then irrigated in time to prevent surface runoff from being wasted. High pressure sprinkler irrigation is generally suitable for use in the formation of flat citrus forests.
(2) The technology of combining biogas slurry fertilizer with chemical fertilizer. Where conditions permit the use of fully mechanized biogas slurry irrigation, it can be combined with chemical fertilizers, preferably high-concentration, fast-dissolving compound fertilizers. Although the nutrient composition of biogas slurry is comprehensive, the concentration is low, and the peak season of citrus fertilizer can not fully meet the demand of large amount of elemental fertilizer, namely NPK fertilizer.
Spring Fertilizer: Generally, the nutrient content is 45% high nitrogen, medium phosphorus and low potassium compound fertilizer, 0.4kg per tree. Or use urea, ammonium phosphate, potassium sulfate artificially prepared by yourself; summer fertilizer: generally use 45% nutrient content of nitrogen, low phosphorus, high potassium compound fertilizer, 0.7kg per tree; winter fertilizer: generally use 45% high nutrient content Nitrogen, medium phosphorus, low potassium compound fertilizer, 0.5kg per tree.
Matters needing attention: First, the fertilizer variety must choose the type of high-efficiency instant dissolution; second, after the chemical fertilizer and the biogas slurry are mixed, it should be fully stirred, and used after proper sedimentation to facilitate irrigation. The static release time is about 10 minutes. If it is too long, it will cause nitrogen nutrient loss. The third is to implement graded irrigation. The pressure distribution is different due to the height of the terraces. Therefore, the upper and lower parts are generally used for irrigation, which is relatively uniform. Therefore, it is best to install a gate valve in the middle of the pv main pipe.
(3) The technology of combining biogas slurry fertilizer with drought resistance. The biogas liquid reserve pool is combined with irrigation and fertilization, water collection and drought resistance to achieve multi-purpose pool, saving money, labor, time and efficiency.
Water collection and drought resistance is designed and built around the biogas slurry reserve pool. Usually collect rainwater in the water. When drought is resistant, the water in the leeches is concentrated in the biogas septic tank, and then the biogas irrigating equipment is used for drought-resistant watering. Where there is a reservoir, it is only necessary to pump the water in the reservoir to the biogas storage tank with a water pump.
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