Harm of rain orchard in the orchard and autumn management techniques of apple orchard

January 17, 2019

Recently, continuous rainfall has a large amount of rainfall, long duration, low temperature, and insufficient illumination, resulting in water accumulation, internal hemorrhage and excessive humidity in some orchards. It is easy to induce the epidemic of cracked fruit, rotten fruit, fruit drop and fruit tree disease, and the yield of late ripe fruit that is about to mature. Quality has an impact. In the autumn management, it is necessary to drain the damp in time, reduce the soil and air humidity, and prevent the loss of rainy days such as cracked fruit, fruit drop and rotten fruit caused by excessive moisture and excessive humidity. Late-ripening apples should pick up the bags at the right time, grab the reflective film, pick the leaves and turn the fruits, improve the microclimate of the orchard, especially the light conditions in the fruit trees and the sheds, to make up for the lack of light in the orchard caused by the continuous rainy weather, the temperature is low, the humidity is too large, Adverse effects on apple coloration and appearance quality. At the same time, we must do a good job in disease prevention and control, low temperature, low light, high humidity and continuous rainy weather, it is easy to induce a variety of disease outbreaks of fruit trees, we should pay attention to the monitoring and prevention of pests and diseases in the late growth stage, especially to pay attention to early leaf disease, ring disease, black Prevention and treatment of diseases such as spot diseases. Special recommendations are made as follows: Fruit removal bag
1. Bag removal time: Red Fuji apples remove bags about 30 days before picking, usually from late September to early October. In addition to the bag, it is best to choose cloudy or cloudy weather to avoid daily burning of the fruit after the bag is removed. If the bag is removed at high temperature on a sunny day, the bag can be removed at 10:00 in the morning when the temperature of the consequence surface is similar to or slightly higher than the temperature of the atmosphere. It is not easy to remove the bag in the morning or evening.
2. In addition to the bag, the fruit is placed. The purpose of the mat is to prevent the wear of the foliage against the fruit surface after the bag is removed. The removed waste bag can be used to cushion the surface of the fruit near the branches. The branches of the easily stabbed fruit surface are removed before the bag is removed.
3. Picking leaves and turning fruits. In addition to the coloration of the fruit in the bag, the fruit is picked and the fruit is transferred. Fuji apple coloring mainly depends on direct light, and it is poorly colored under astigmatism conditions. Therefore, after removing the bag, the leaves and leaves that affect the coloring of the fruit should be removed in time, and the shady side of the fruit is turned to the sunny side to produce the whole red fruit. Be careful when handling to avoid turning the fruit off. The total amount of leaves should be controlled at 10% to 15%, and should not exceed 20%. The leaves should be taken at noon in the sun to avoid the burning of the fruit. The time should be cloudy or 3 pm.
4. Foliar spray fertilizer. After Fuji apples are bagged, due to the high temperature inside the bag, the metabolism of calcium is strong, and the mobility of calcium in the tree is small. Compared with the non-bag fruit, it is more likely to cause calcium deficiency and cause bitter pox disease. The fruit is in the near maturity stage after bag removal, which is another peak of calcium absorption. Therefore, timely spraying calcium fertilizer 2 to 3 times after bag removal can alleviate the occurrence of bitter pox disease. A variety of amino acid calcium fertilizer can be used. In addition, in order to promote fruit coloration, combined with calcium supplementation, the leaves are sprayed 200 to 300 times potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2 to 3 times.
Second, pest control
1. Strengthening the prevention and control of early defoliation of apples The early defoliation of apples mainly includes brown spot, spotted leaf disease, gray spot disease and round spot disease. After August, there is more rain, 40% Fuxing 6000-8000 times; or 1% anti-mycin 800 times; or 50% haixin 1200 times; you can also use Bordeaux liquid 1 or 2 times, both rain-resistant, medicine The effect time is long. In the prevention and treatment of pesticides after flowering, pay attention to the prevention and treatment of August to September. The interval between each spraying is 12 to 15 days. Pay attention to the rotation and alternate medication. The number of prevention and control times in the whole year is controlled at 6 to 7 times.
2. Pest control continues to strictly control rot disease, and can also supplement organic potassium fertilizer. For the orchard that has not been dried in the early stage, after the apple is harvested, carefully inspect the orchard, scrape the old skin, and cure the small oil spots, large surface ulcers, or sickness, and cure them in time. 40% Fuxing 60 times, or bacteria poison 20 times, once again 7-10 days interval, even 2-3 times.
At the end of September, at the end of September, the traps were tied to the trunks. The traps were used to wrap the trunks, trapping the hidden wintering pests such as the small leaf curler and the red spider, and were burned in the winter to reduce the number of wintering insects.
Third, the apple tree autumn application base fertilizer technology fertilization time: early September - late October, the fruit season, the autumn application base fertilizer amount:
MU applies high-quality decomposed farmyard manure 3000-5000 kg (fused oil residue or bean cake 150-200 kg) + phosphate fertilizer 100 kg + ammonium carbonate 100 kg or urea 25 kg + potassium fertilizer 25 kg;
The amount of fertilizer applied to the garden from the young garden to the beginning of the fruit period:
Applying organic fertilizer 1000-1500 kg + phosphate fertilizer 50 kg + ammonium carbonate 50 kg or urea 10-12 kg;
Fertilization method: the base fertilizer must be deep and even. The result tree can be applied by radiation ditch and ditch, with a groove width of 70 cm and a depth of 40 cm. The saplings can be combined with the expansion plate to adopt the annular groove or the whole garden to spread the deep.
Fourth, the branch management comprehensive application of pulling, smashing, twisting, taking branches and so on to promote flowering measures, adjust the angle and azimuth of the branch group, adjust the growth potential, improve ventilation and light transmission conditions, not only to maximize light and yield It is also necessary to reduce the inefficient consumption in order to increase nutrient accumulation and promote fruit enlargement and flower bud differentiation. The best reason for pulling the branches in autumn is that in the autumn, the nutrient recirculation period is easy to accumulate in the branches, so that the buds are more full and can promote flower bud differentiation. The best time for pulling branches is 1-2 years. The branches should be pulled from mid-August to mid-September, easy to fix and full of branches. In the second year, the spring sprouted more and the tree was moderate. The branches above 3 years old should be pulled in the spring and then in mid-May to pull branches, branches, self-weight, easy opening, quick recovery of wounds, and less on the back.
Determine the angle by variety. 1. For the main branches of Fuji and other varieties that are not easy to be flowered, the strong growth should be pulled to 95-125 degrees. Yi Chenghua's slap, pink lady and short branch red Fuji should be pulled to about 85 degrees. 2. Determine the angle according to planting density: the planting density is large, and the angle of pulling branches is also large, generally for Red Fuji. The angle is between 110 degrees and 125 degrees. It is advisable to pull the small main branch angle of the orchard with a small planting density to 95-115 degrees. 3. Pulling branches according to the growth trend: The angle of strong Wangzhi is open to Yida. The weak branch angle should be small. Method of pulling branches: Pulling branches can adopt a method of pushing, two soft, three pressure, and four positioning. Specifically, it is a push: the hand holds the branch and pushes it repeatedly. Two soft: the branches are soft and soft. Three pressures: while soft. Press the shoot down to the desired angle. Four positioning: tie the rope or wire to the branches, make it just straight according to the orientation, and it is not suitable for arching. For branches with thicker push-pull jaws, it can be placed at the base of the back, even with two saws or three saws. The saw and the branches are inclined at an angle of 45 degrees, and the depth is 1/3-1/2 of the thick branches. At 3 cm. Then slowly press down, bury the stake and fix it to the desired angle with wire. 5. Harvesting and sales of mid-late maturing varieties.
Timely go to the bag, pick the leaves and turn the fruit, and put the reflective film. Immediately after removing the bag, spray the boron fertilizer + calcium supplement + fungicide, not only improve the commodity rate, but also increase the weight and prolong the storage period. Laying reflective film: generally after 3-5 days of removal of the fruit bag, the orchard without bagging should be carried out 30-40 days before harvesting. The late-maturing varieties of orchards in our county should generally begin to lay reflective film in the middle and late September. The reflective film is placed on the orchard to reflect the sunlight and reflect the sunlight, so as to improve the lighting conditions of the whole orchard, especially the canopy and the lower skirt of the canopy, so that the fruits of these parts, especially the parts where the fruit is not easy to be colored, are fully colored and increased. The number of whole red fruits, in order to achieve the purpose of improving the appearance quality of apples. Reflective film is a very mature technology, which is widely used in many countries such as Japan, Europe, New Zealand, etc., and is used in many high-grade orchards in China. Laying the reflective film not only promotes fruit coloration, but also enhances photosynthesis of fruit trees, thereby increasing yield. In addition, the reflective film can be used repeatedly to reduce the cost of use. A silver-white aluminized film is generally available. Most of the aluminum-plated films on the market today have a reflectivity of 60%-70%, which can be used continuously for 2-4 years.

Total 1 | <First <Prev 1 Next> Last> |
share to:

Drying System&Powder Curing System

Powder Coating Oven,Coating Equipment,Coating Machine

Metallic Powder Coating Co., Ltd. , http://www.nsralcolour.com