Malan Organic Cultivation Technology

March 05, 2020

1. Cultivation site selection Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
The purpose of the organic cultivation of the Ma Lan anniversary is to achieve the quality of wild Malan under the conditions of artificial cultivation techniques, to realize the annual production and annual supply of Malan, and to improve product quality and economic benefits. Therefore, cultivated areas should be selected in areas with good ecological environment, fresh air, pure water quality, and the ability to maintain sustainable production and development. Specifically, we must pay attention to the following points: First, keep away from industrial polluted areas such as waste water, waste gas and waste residue, especially away from polluted water sources, or do not use non-polluted water for irrigation; second, the soil should be fertile and in the soil. Heavy metal content, nitrate content, pesticide residues do not exceed the standard without pollution; third, transportation should be convenient, drainage irrigation should be convenient, ventilation should be good; Fourth, do not use fertilizer, garbage fertilizer, unfertilized human and animal waste and hospital feces. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
2, the shed to build Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Protected field cultivation is the key to improving product quality, yield and economic benefits in the annual cultivation technology of Malan. A bamboo shed or a steel frame can be used. The steel frame shed is generally 30 meters long, 6 meters wide and 2.8 meters high. The specifications of the bamboo shed can be built with reference to the steel frame shed, or 30 meters long, 5 meters wide and 2.2 meters high (can cover 1.2 meters x 9.5). The specifications of the 畦9畦) around the meter are built. In short, the construction of greenhouses requires good insulation performance, convenient field management, and is conducive to the growth of Malan, while at the same time being flexible and practical, tailored to local conditions. According to the specifications of 30 meters in length, 5 meters in width and 2.2 meters in height, the cost of building a bamboo greenhouse is about 520 yuan. The cost of the actual cultivable area is about 5 yuan / meter 2, and the cost of the steel frame greenhouse is five times. However, the steel frame greenhouse is strong and durable, and its service life is longer than that of the bamboo shed. Therefore, its annual cost is comparable to that of the bamboo greenhouse in the long run. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
3. Site preparation and fertilization Linyi Fertilizer Network
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Malan has a strong adaptability to the soil, but its yield is high and its quality is high in fertile, moist and loose soil. Therefore, the Ma Lan anniversary cultivation must be based on the base fertilizer, laying the foundation for the long-term growth and improvement of Malan's product quality. The soil is ploughed and ploughed for the first month, and 3000 to 5000 kg of decomposed organic fertilizer such as chicken manure, duck manure, cow dung, pig manure or waste mushroom stick is applied per mu. The width and length of the raft are determined by the size of the plot and the actual size of the shed, generally based on the principle of facilitating management and improving land utilization. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
4, breeding methods Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Malan breeding methods include seed propagation, rhizome propagation, ramets propagation, and cutting propagation. At present, the most used in production is rhizome propagation and ramets propagation. Due to the difficulty in collecting Malan seeds and low germination rate, it is not common to see Linfen Fertilizer Network.
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Seed reproduction: When the average daily temperature is stable at 20~25°C, it is the best time for sowing. The Lishui area is most suitable for sowing in April, late September and early October. It starts to emerge in about 7 days after sowing, and basically emerges in about 20 days. At the end of the day, the seeding time in other seasons will take about 12 to 50 days. In order to improve the germination rate of Malan seeds, ensure that the seedlings are neatly tidy, soak seeds in warm water for 8 to 12 hours before planting, and then drain the seeds into the refrigerator for 7 to 10 days at low temperature. When some seeds start to spit green, they can be Mix the seeds with dry fine soil or dry fine sand and mix well. The soil should be loose and not agglomerated. When sowing, sowing or stripping can be carried out, the line spacing is 20 cm, and the shallow ditch is about 1 cm. When spreading, the seeds should be evenly distributed. After sowing, the seeds should be slightly suppressed and watered. In the Lishui area, after sowing in November, December, January, February, and March, the membrane should be kept warm and moisturized to facilitate early emergence and shorten the time of the first harvest. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Rhizome breeding: It can be propagated on an annual basis, but it is mainly spring and autumn. Collect the underground rhizomes of Malan in the wild or excavate the underground rhizomes of the reserve seedlings. The thicker the better, and cut them into 10 cm long roots with 3 to 4 shoots. Open the breeding ditch on the raft surface by 10 to 20 cm, and then put the roots into the ditch. The buds of the roots should face upwards, the roots should be stretched, and 2-3 roots should be placed in the same breeding ditch. To ensure the survival rate and the number of rhizome reproduction. Immediately after the roots are placed, cover the soil 2 to 3 cm and then pour the water. When the low temperature is propagated, it is necessary to cover the membrane to keep warm, and when the temperature is high, it is necessary to cover the net. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Sub-plant breeding: It can be propagated on an annual basis, but it is mainly in spring and autumn. The breeding in February and March is most beneficial for early closure of the ridge. Before breeding, select the plants that grow robustly in the wild or artificially planted areas and dig them up. According to the roots of the main stems, 2 to 3 plants are clustered into seedlings. The root rhizomes of each plexus seedling are about 5 cm long, and the ground stems are left with 2 to 5 leaves, and the excess is cut off. Reproduce by 15 cm × 20 cm or 10 cm × 10 cm, and then water in time. When the low temperature is propagated, it is necessary to build a small arch shed for heat preservation, and use a sunshade net to cool down when breeding at high temperature. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
5, field management Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Weeding and loosening soil: Before breeding to the ridge, the plant has a large gap and is easy to breed weeds. It is a key period for weeding and loosening soil. Every time, weeding or loosening the soil once, in addition to early, in addition to small, in addition to, the revolutionary grass, purslane and other malignant weeds must be rooted out. For seed propagation, it is necessary to do the seedlings and seedlings during the previous weeding. Using rhizome propagation and ramets breeding, weeding and loosening should be diligent to reduce weed growth, accelerate the growth of Malan underground rhizomes, and shorten the sealing time. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Fertilizer and water management: Scientific fertilizer and water management is one of the key measures to improve the quality of Malan and ensure high yield of Malan. Therefore, after planting Malan, it depends on soil moisture and plant growth, and timely watering and fertilizing. Watering is done in the morning and in the evening to keep the soil moist. Fertilization adheres to organic fertilizers such as decomposed pig manure, chicken manure, cow dung and human waste, without using chemical fertilizers to improve the quality of Malan and maintain Malan's “wildness”. "Flanging" fertilizer: When the seedlings begin to grow before the plants are closed, the thin manure and manure are applied 1 to 3 times to promote the robust growth of the plants and accelerate the expansion of the underground stems. "High yield" fertilizer: After the first or subsequent harvest, apply a layer of decomposed organic manure such as pig manure and chicken manure on the clam surface for 2~5kg/m2, the first harvest. After the application of fertilizer in a timely manner, several times depending on the growth of the plant, the application of "high yield" fertilizer can improve the yield and quality of Malan, but also achieve the effect of rejuvenation. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Pest control: After the wild Malan is artificially planted and planted, the pests and diseases will usually increase. Common insect pests include aphids and moths, and the diseases include downy mildew and root rot. Prevention and control of aphids, moths and other pests should first use biological pesticides, such as the use of Bacillus thuringiensis to effectively control the larvae, noctuidae, can also be used to control low-toxic and low-residue pesticides, such as with 0.5% Guardian high-permeability 750 times liquid Continuous control for 2 to 3 times also has obvious effects, but it is strictly forbidden to use highly toxic and high residual pesticides. Diseases such as downy mildew and root rot should be ventilated and dehumidified first, including reducing the moisture in the soil. The downy mildew is treated with 800-1000 liquid spray for 2 to 3 times, and the root rot is treated with carbendazim 600~. 800 liquid irrigation roots 2 to 3 times have significant effects. Spraying the baking soda solution at the seedling stage can prevent the infiltration of the bacteria, promote the growth of Malan, and increase the yield of the product. The baking soda solution was prepared by adding 100 g of baking soda to 100 g of water. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
6. Commodity harvesting Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Timely harvesting is an important part of ensuring product quality, increasing production and reducing harvesting costs. When the stem of Malanen grows to about 8-15 cm and the color of the stem is still white (light green), it is the best time to harvest. At this time, Malan is fresh and tender, with strong flavor, high yield and good product performance. If the harvest is too early, the yield is low, and the economic benefit is poor. Too late harvesting of the young stems will grow old, affecting the quality of the products, and also greatly increase the harvesting cost, and the economic benefits are also not good. When harvesting, use a sickle to cut the whole size of the Malan from the mud surface. Note that the shorter the stem on the mud surface, the better, the better, but don't hurt the tender seedling that just grows from the ground. After harvesting, all the plants will grow neatly, which can increase the harvesting speed and reduce the harvesting cost. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
According to market sales, it can be harvested at one time or in batches. In places where market sales are not large, batch harvesting can effectively stagger the time to market, avoid product backlogs, and ensure continuous product listing. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
7. Seed harvesting Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
The flowering period and the fruiting period of the same plant Malan are different. Therefore, the seeds formed during the flowering period can increase the yield. It is observed that the flowering period of Malansheng in Lishui area is ripe after the low temperature period around October. When the fruit is ripe in November, the color of the achenes becomes dark brown. At this time, the seeds are mature and must be harvested. When harvesting, choose Tianqing morning, cut the whole plant of Malan and put it on the ground with plastic film for 5 to 7 days, then shake the seeds on the plant several times, and finally go to the miscellaneous, clean, and Save the seed. When drying seeds, be careful not to pile the plants too thick, so as not to cause the plants to heat up in the rainy days, causing rotten seeds. Artificially cultivated Malan can harvest about 15 kg of seeds per acre. Linyi Fertilizer Network Copyright
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